SmartCash Whitepaper


Abstract—Bitcoin is the first e-cash system to see widespread
adoption. While Bitcoin offers the potential for new types of
financial interaction, it has significant limitations regarding
privacy. Specifically, because the Bitcoin transaction log is
completely public, users’ privacy is protected only through the
use of pseudonyms. In this paper we propose Zerocoin, a cryptographic
extension to Bitcoin that augments the protocol to allow
for fully anonymous currency transactions. Our system uses
standard cryptographic assumptions and does not introduce
new trusted parties or otherwise change the security model of
Bitcoin. We detail Zerocoin’s cryptographic construction, its
integration into Bitcoin, and examine its performance both in
terms of computation and impact on the Bitcoin protocol.

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SmartCash Whitepaper